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Clear: Ambiguous:“Because Senator Martin is less interested in the environment than in economic development, he sometimes neglects it.” Clear:“Because Senator Martin is less interested in the environment than in economic development, he sometimes neglects the environment.
” Ambiguous: Clear: Ambiguous: Clear: Analogies and Metaphors Analogies and metaphors in useful in technical writing to illustrate abstract or complicated ideas by making comparisons between two generally unlike things Replace all writing in blue with your own writing. The line spacing for this paragraph is to be single-spaced, which is common in professional reports (note that graduate theses and dissertations are often space and a half). Please indent all Second Subheading (If Subheadings Exist) X. Third Subheading (If One Exists) X..” Ambiguous: Clear: Ambiguous: Clear: Analogies and Metaphors Analogies and metaphors in useful in technical writing to illustrate abstract or complicated ideas by making comparisons between two generally unlike things.
Example: “When two atoms approach each other at great speeds, they go through one another, while at moderate speeds, they bound off each other like two billiard balls.” Sir William Bragg Audience Writing with the intended audience(s) in mind is one of the most fundamental concepts of technical writing Order an engineering report Platinum 142 pages / 39050 words Vancouver 7 days.” Sir William Bragg Audience Writing with the intended audience(s) in mind is one of the most fundamental concepts of technical writing.Many technical documents will not only be read by the first person (primary audience) but may also be read by secondary audiences:readers in various levels of management, prospective financiers, or even individuals who access information without the writer’s knowledge Order an engineering report Platinum 142 pages / 39050 words Vancouver 7 days.Many technical documents will not only be read by the first person (primary audience) but may also be read by secondary audiences:readers in various levels of management, prospective financiers, or even individuals who access information without the writer’s knowledge.For this reason, it is important to consider who may read your documents beyond the primary audience and write with any additional audiences in mind.
This means targeting information appropriate for the knowledge of the audience(s) and using accessible language that both technical and non-technical audiences can understand.Cliches Cliches, or figures of speech, are terms that have no concrete meaning and can affect the tone and professionalism of a document.Cliches should be avoided in technical writing.Examples include: Examples: Use: Eliminate filler words (very, quite, really, somewhat, that) Contractions Contractions are shortened forms of words with the missing letters represented by an apostrophe such as “you’ll” for “you will” or “didn’t” for “did not.
”Contractions are unprofessional and informal and should be avoided in most technical documents.
Generalized Statements Generalizations are broad statements or ideas that are applied to a group of people or things and should be avoided in technical writing.These statements are difficult to substantiate and are too broad to be supported.Gender-Neutral Terms Avoid specifying gender when possible.Gender specific language can create stereotypes, make generalizations, and exclude gender.
Individuals should not be referred to solely as he or Use generic terms when referring to specific groups of people (“supervisors”) Avoid gender-specific pronouns (“his” or “her”) Use gender-neutral titles when referring to people “(sales representatives” not “salesmen” Examples: A student should always do his or her homework.(gender neutral) Students should always do their homework.(gender neutral) A student should always do their homework.(gender neutral) * *While it may seem strange or incorrect to use the plural their to refer to a single student, their has become the preferred replacement in many places in order to ensure gender neutral language.It is no longer considered grammatically incorrect to use their as a singular pronoun in this context.
Headings In technical reports, headings are used to organize documents, guide the reader, and break content into manageable chunks of information.Readers often peruse headings and read those sections that pertain to them.Headings organize content into large sections (major headings) and then into smaller sections (sub-headings).Headings are formatted by level (first level, second level, third level, etc.) and vary in their position and formatting.
Discipline- and employer-specific style manuals will provide guidelines in the placement and visual layout of headings.Headings vary in the type of information they provide: Brief topic headings use short words or phrases Example: Example: When using headings: Try to avoid starting headings with a, an, or the Aim for at least two headings at each level; avoid dividing a section into a single sub-section if possible Avoid repeating the wording of a higher-level heading in a sub-heading Use headings to create the table of contents (if applicable to the document) Jargon Jargon is often called professional slang and consists of terms specific to a particular organization.Examples of jargon include terms like “flame” or “FUBAR.”Jargon sets members of an organization apart from non-members.When communicating with individuals who are likely to be unfamiliar with jargon, avoid using the term.
Lists Lists are useful in technical writing for three purposes:to write a series of related items, to describe a series of tasks, and to make items visually accessible.Lists can be written in a sentence (as in the previous sentence) or set off from the text vertically.Items listed vertically are prefaced with a bullet, number, or checkmark.Bulleted lists make items easy to see or locate, numbered lists organize steps in a process, and checklists communicate items that need are required or need to be completed.Lists are prefaced with a lead-in phrase ( Items to review for the training:) or sentence ( The following topics will be reviewed at the training:) Key points to keep in mind when creating lists: Lists should be constructed in a parallel fashion.
Lists comprised of brief items typically contain no ending punctuation.Lists with no sequence required should be arranged logically (most to least important, alphabetical) Lists written as full sentences should use appropriate ending punctuation.Narration (Point of View) how something happened:a lab procedure, a site visit, an accident, a recommendation.Third person narration is most often the appropriate choice in technical documents and academic journals, but in some cases it might be appropriate to use first or second person (common in business correspondence).Examples: I should get good grades in college.
Second person narration, “You” words are used.Third person narration, “he/she/neutral” words are used.A student should get good grades in college.
Students should get good grades in college.Objectivity Technical documents present facts, data, evidence, calculations, results, and theories, which must be presented in an impersonal, neutral, and objective manner.Avoid use of the word “feelings” or the verb “feel” in technical writing.Phrases such as “I feel this is the best approach” evokes emotion, is not objective, and can lend uncertainty to technical writing.Similarly, “When the weight feels right” should not be used in describing inanimate objects.
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Paragraphs Paragraphs are the building blocks of documents.It is important to keep in mind the basic elements of paragraph construction:each paragraph should contain a topic sentence that is well-developed and supported, discuss one idea, and transition to the next paragraph.In technical writing, paragraphs are generally kept to 4-6 lines Professional Engineers require good communications skills in order to successfully present their ideas in a clear, concise manner. The aim of this writing guide is to provide Mechanical. Engineering students with the fundamentals of good written communication, in terms of technical reports and logbooks. It provides the .In technical writing, paragraphs are generally kept to 4-6 lines.
Short paragraphs emphasize main ideas, encourage conciseness, keep the reader’s attention, and break up content into manageable chunks.Parallelism Parallelism means using the same structure for listed items Preparation of Papers for AIAA Technical Conferences.
Parallelism Parallelism means using the same structure for listed items.
These items can occur in a sentence, in a table, in a bulleted or numbered list, or in headings Preparation of Papers for AIAA Technical Conferences.These items can occur in a sentence, in a table, in a bulleted or numbered list, or in headings.Sentences with parallel structure are easier to read and flow more smoothly.Not Parallel: “In heat and mass transfer class, students learned about modelling heat equations, dimensioning for thermal design, and how to analyze results.” Parallel: “In heat and mass transfer class, students learned about modelling heat equations, dimensioning for thermal design, and analyzing results.
” When creating a bullet list, all items in the list should be parallel in construction.
Redundancy Examples: Systeme Internationale (SI) units are the most widely and officially recognized system of metric units for weights, dimensions, and other physical measures in technical writing.Technical documents should use SI units in text, figures, tables, and equations.Sentence Length In technical writing, uncomplicated sentences are used to state complex ideas.Long, complex sentences tend to confuse readers.Strive for a sentence length of 10-20 words.
A document should not be constructed, however, of short, choppy sentences.Varying sentence length can encourage readability, make comparisons, and contrast information.Technical Terms and Definitions When introducing a technical term in a document, italicize and provide a brief explanation of the term the first time it is used.There are generally three types of technical definitions: informal, formal, and expanded.Informal definitions contain a word or brief phrase, often in parentheses, that gives minimal information about the term.
“At the southwest corner of the mall site, we found 16 barrels of creosote (a coal tar derivative) buried under three feet of sand.” Formal definitions are typically a full sentence that distinguishes the term from other similar terms and includes the term itself, a class to which the term belongs, and distinguishing feature(s) of the term, which typically describe what the term does.Term is a flight condition in which the lift produced becomes less than the weight of the airplane, and the airplane stops flying.” Tone Tone refers to the feeling or attitude a document evokes; tone can also portray how the writer feels about a subject.Tone can be dependent on the purpose, audience, or medium of the message.
Strive for neutral, professional, understandable words.Because engineers deal with complex information and terminology, word usage should be accessible and familiar (see Word Choice).Voice (Active or Passive) Voice refers to how verbs are used in sentences.Although passive voice has long been a hallmark of technical writing, writing in the active voice is a preferred practice.Active voice makes documents more readable by making sentences more clear and concise.
Passive voice is still used for certain types of technical documents such as lab reports.When the verb is in the active voice, the subject performs the action; when the verb is used in the passive voice, the subject receives the action.Examples: Engineering Handbook The quality of your design or idea will be evaluated based on your ability to communicate it.Many excellent projects were never accepted because they were poorly written.Language, to an engineer, is a tool as important as a calculator or sophisticated software.
Effective cooperation between team members requires precise understanding.Careless use of language and weak application of professional practice (convention) may render otherwise gifted engineers isolated and helpless in a world of complex cooperation.Poets and novelists are language artists.They are driven by the beauty of words and the flow of passages.
They communicate in a figurative reality.Wasted words interfere with clarity, and passages without logical connection result in inefficiency in completing projects.
On the job, they prepare reports, submit proposals, create guides and manuals, and distribute information in letters and emails.Engineers may spend as much as 60% of their working hours writing to diverse audiences to achieve a variety of purposes.Each document written by an engineer is produced to achieve a specific purpose.Each document is targeted to a specific audience who plays an essential role in a project in progress.
Engineers who are skilled at using language as a precision tool enhance their potential for successful careers.Engineering Handbook Sections Cover Letter For many reports, the cover letter may act as an abstract or executive summary.The letter introduces the topic of the report.It summarizes the report and should follow the organizational scheme of the report.
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The following example letter illustrates the standard business letter format and describes the basics of what is included and how the letter is formatted.
know your audience All writing, including creative writing, is done with a specific audience in mind.In professional practice there are two distinct super-groups for which one is likely to write: an internal audience and an external audience A design report is the written record of the project and generally is the only record that lives once the design team The report has three sections. The first section describes the problem that was being solved and provides the background to the design. The second section If not, use 1 inch margins, single spacing, blank..In professional practice there are two distinct super-groups for which one is likely to write: an internal audience and an external audience.
An internal audience is a group or person within your own organization, such as a boss, coworker or professional workgroup.Internal audience share common vocabulary, points of reference, and values with the author (Note: Windows users will need to indicate “Save as Type>Document Template (*.dot)” when asked in the dialogue box; Mac users should save the file in the “My Templates” The paper number, which appears in the format AIAA-201N-NNNN, will be used to refer to your paper in the program and in any publication format..
Internal audience share common vocabulary, points of reference, and values with the author.
It is acceptable to use local terminology, acronyms, and shared biases (Note: Windows users will need to indicate “Save as Type>Document Template (*.dot)” when asked in the dialogue box; Mac users should save the file in the “My Templates” The paper number, which appears in the format AIAA-201N-NNNN, will be used to refer to your paper in the program and in any publication format..
It is acceptable to use local terminology, acronyms, and shared biases.
External audiences are typically clients (or prospective clients), but can be any group or individual from outside your organization.They do not have the inside information or background shared by internal audiences.Avoid using jargon, spell out acronyms, and use terms that are easily understood.Provide necessary background information that would not be necessary when communicating with internal audiences.Page Numbering ● All pages in the report are numbered, excluding special pages like the title page, front and back covers.
● In contemporary design style, all pages use Arabic numerals.● In traditional design style, all pages before the introduction, the first page of the body of the report, and after the last page of the report, use lowercase roman numerals.Arabic numerals are used in the body of the report.● Page numbers are usually placed at the bottom center of the page (to be easily hidden).If page numbers are placed at the top of the page, numbers must be hidden when a heading or title is at the top of the page.
● For longer reports, double-enumeration page numbering is used to make adding and deleting pages easier.For example, pages in Chapter 7 are numbered 7-1, 7-2, 7-3, etc.List of Figures and Tables Create a new page with a list of figures, tables, illustrations, diagrams, and charts that are in the report.For shorter reports, lists of figures and tables are combing in one list and organized in the order of appearance in the report.In longer reports, create a separate list for figures and tables.
Both lists can be placed on the same page.The title of the list and figure is left justified and the page number of appearance is right justified.Abstract The abstract is a summary of the report and should be less than 5 percent of the body of the report.Most readers read the abstract to extract useful information rather than reading the entire report.Abstracts should summarize and identify the purpose or goal, the rationale behind the purpose, the most important data, findings, and brief interpretations of data and findings.
Do not include references of quoted/ paraphrasing information.The abstract should begin on a separate page and be no more than 150-250 words.Executive Summary The executive summary includes key facts and conclusions made about results or findings.For reports 10 to 50 pages long, the summary is 5% to 10% of the length of the report.For reports longer than 50 pages, the summary should not exceed three pages.
The summary is similar to the abstract, but it is longer and has more details.The abstract, summary, introduction might seem repetitive, but this will allow the reader to pick up on all details, because most people do not read the entire report and skip around from section to section to pick out information.Introduction The introduction gives the reader background information, history, statistics, and general purpose.Less than one-third of the introduction should cover background information and history.This will gain the reader's interest in the subject and provide context.
Background information should be revealed to the report rather than general.Include brief overviews and background information on both topics covered and not covered in the body of the report.Any information the reader will need to understand the report is stated in the introduction.The introduction should be less than 10 percent of the body of the report.Body of the Report This Body of the Report is the main section.
Depending on the type and length of report, subheadings are used to denote different sections or topics.For example, an experimental report will have a “Theory/Methods”, “Results”, and “Discussion” section, whereas a project proposal may have headings such as “Overview”, “Timetable”, and “Budget”.Subheadings allow the reader to skim the report for information important.Most reports include graphics and tables in the body.Any table or figure included in a section of the report must also be referred to in that section.
For example: “The slope of the tangent line was used to determine acceleration after 3 seconds (See Fig.” Any table containing raw data which cannot be reasonably referred to within the body of the report, should be placed in an appendix.Graphics and tables should be presented professionally, and be labeled clearly and accurately.
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For further information, see “Appendix B: Equations, Figures and Tables.
” Depending on the information contained in the body, bulleted, numbered, or columned lists may be used to help emphasize key points, make information easier to follow, and break up solid blocks of text.The body may contain symbols, numbers, and abbreviations; the grammar rules about writing out numbers 0-10 do not apply to engineering reports Company-specific style manuals often contain templates, which are used when creating written technical documents (progress or status reports, design reports, proposals, etc.) Mechanical Engineering. General Single spacing; Left justification; full justification is preferred for theses, dissertations, and journal articles..The body may contain symbols, numbers, and abbreviations; the grammar rules about writing out numbers 0-10 do not apply to engineering reports.
Remember to define acronyms or abbreviations the first time you use them.Technical information full of numbers and symbols can become tedious to wade through How to buy an report engineering Platinum 10 days A4 (British/European) Academic.
Technical information full of numbers and symbols can become tedious to wade through.
To assist your audience, organize your paragraphs into a logical sequence.
Group small paragraphs with related information together and add short overview paragraphs at the beginning of subsections.Check your grammar, word usage, and punctuation term paper.Check your grammar, word usage, and punctuation.Poor grammar and punctuation can lead to confusion in an otherwise good paper.Passive voice can be unwieldy and awkward, so use the active voice.
Avoid redundancy and leave out unnecessary words and phrases.Conclusion The conclusion is similar in length to the abstract.In it, you present conclusions as they relate to your experimental objectives.The conclusion relates back to the introduction by providing general information on implications, applications, and possible future developments on the topic.However, where the introduction provides information from the body of knowledge available on the topic before this report, the conclusion must expand on those areas based on the new data or information presented in this report.
No new information is presented in the conclusion.Instead, summarize the key points of the report, draw logical conclusions from the preceding discussion, and give the reader a sense of closure.Citing sources protects the authors of the information, and allows them to receive credit and acknowledgement for their work.It also protects you from being accused of plagiarism.Citing demonstrates to the readers that you have done research, you are aware of recent developments, and you give the readers information where they can find the information to read it themselves.
Fundamentals of Using Sources ● Use research to influence and support, rather to controlling your thinking and writing.● Incorporate sources into the context of your work.When Sources must be Cited Always cite the following: ● Another author’s statistics, theories, and visuals.● Another author's direct research procedures, findings, experimental methods, or results.Reference Page Format ● List sources in the order they are cited in the text, not alphabetical order.
● In the IEEE system, only the author's initials first name is given.The titles of journal articles are in the form of a sentence not a title.● Single space individual references and alight the second or third with the first.● Double space between separate references.● Use common abbreviations for journal titles if there is one.
If not, give the full name of the journal.● If a source is referred to more than once in the text, only list the source once in the reference page.Integrating Sources in the Text ● Only use sources if it is absolutely necessary in the introduction and conclusion.● Use sources in the middle of the paragraph, not the beginning or ending of the paragraph.
● Integrate sources within the paragraph to blend your ideas with the ideas of the source's.Appendix A: Symbols, Numbers, and Abbreviations ● Temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Rankine are expressed using the ° symbol instead of the written word." Temperature in Kelvin is expressed as 32 K.● Measured quantities, such as decimal points, dimensions, time, money, frequency, weights, degrees, etc.
● Avoid starting a sentence with a number.If it is unavoidable, write out the number.● When using acronyms or abbreviations for the first time, write out the complete name and then place the abbreviation in parenthesis following it.After this is done once, the abbreviation can be used alone for the rest of the report.
Equations Formulas and equations are used to efficiently communicate ideas to the other engineers.Equations should not slow down the reader and must be appropriate for the audience.● Short, uncomplicated equations can be included as part of the sentence without special spacing.● If the equation is in the sentence and is too long for a single line, break the equation before an =, +, -, or x sign, use these signs to start the line and then continue the equation.● Longer, more complicated equations should be centered and set off on a new line.
● When centering an equation, skip one line above the equation and one or two after the equation.● Define symbols and members of equations just after the equation, by introducing them with the word "where.
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" ● If possible, do not let the equation continue from one page to the next.● If equations need to be referred to more than once, the equation can be numbered in parentheses at the right-hand margin.
In the text the equation can be identified by the number of the equation in parentheses Writing as Engineers. A Guide to Written Communication for Engineering Students. The quality of your design or idea will be evaluated based on your. ability to For longer reports, double-enumeration page numbering is used to make adding and deleting pages easier. Double space between separate references..
In the text the equation can be identified by the number of the equation in parentheses.
Figures and Tables ● Arrange figures from left to right.● Label the axes of the graph with complete words and units in parentheses Mechanical Engineering Writing Guide Department of Mechanical nbsp.● Label the axes of the graph with complete words and units in parentheses.Use "Temperature (Celsius) versus Time (Seconds)" rather than "T (*C) vs." ● Use line graphs to plot continuous variables such as time or temperature.
● Use bar graphs or pie charts for discontinuous variables such as percentages or sampling in intervals.● Use photographs or drawings to visually present the materials such as a poppet valve or a built up diesel engine.● Use flowcharts to present a series of events and outcomes.● Use footnotes for additional or explanatory material such as “values are estimated” or “values are based on a study from 2003”.Fundamentals for Tables ● The title of the table should be clear and explain what the data represents.
● Each entry in the left-most column (called a stub) must apply across the entire row, and each heading of a column must apply to all entries below it.● Stub items are arranged logically -- smallest to largest, alphabetically, or categorically.● Stub headings will include the units in each column or row, if necessary.● Straight lines are used to separate the table's title from the column headings, the column headings from the body of the table, and the bottom of the table from the paper's text.Straight lines to box the table is appropriate to separate the table from the text.
● Construct tables so the reader can read down a column rather than along a row.● Use footnotes for additional or explanatory material such as the fact that values are estimated or values are based on a study from 2003.Textual references to figures and tables ● Figures and tables are numbered consecutively, beginning with number 1.Figures and tables are numbered separately from each other.● Capitalize the "t" in table and "f" in figure, when referring to a specific table or figure in the text.
● Introduce figures and tables in the text in logical places."See Figure 3" can be written in parentheses at the end of a paragraph or at the beginning of the paragraph, where the paragraph will be written based on the figure.● After the table or figure is presented explain and interpret it in the text.Avoid re-writing the information from the table or figure in the text, unless you interpret the information.● When a reference to the table or figure is the subject of the sentence, use a verb like “shows” or “compares”, to describe how the figure or table works.
Captions for figures and tables ● The caption appears below the graphic for a figure and above for the table.● Bold or underline the word "figure" or "table" and the number in the caption.Present the caption in plain text with the first letters of important words capitalized.● Write complete, descriptive captions for figures and tables, so it would make sense even if the caption was ripped from the paper.For example, instead of "Figure 4: Air Flow" use " Figure 4: The Air Profile of a Helicopter Above the Rocky Mountains" ● If the table or figure is the same or based on another author's, include the words "Adapted from" followed by the author's name in the caption.
● Always cite the table or figure when presented, using the same citation style as the paper.The citation appears at the end of the caption.Appendix C: Common Jargon Jargon should only be used when talking to people within a subject or particular profession because it allows communication to be clear and precise.Using jargon in papers where the audience is not familiar with the subject makes the writing imprecise, confusing, condescending, or intimidating to the reader because the audience is not familiar with the words and phrases.For instance, to the average person ATM means automated teller machine, but to an electrical engineer it means asynchronous transfer mode.
Jargon is necessary for technical papers of specialized fields to provide clear and concise energy.There is common jargon between general fields in engineering, and within specific fields of engineering such as mechanical, nuclear, or electrical engineering.For instance, an electrical engineer would use words like "transient" "phasor" "conductor" to analyze a circuit.Alternatives to common jargon words and phrases are in the list below: Engineering Jargon Weigh the dirt Parallel construction is useful in giving directions within each step.In the example that follows, each action is described by an active verb followed by a description.
Pour 100 milliliters of 1x buffer (TAE) into flask Insert a magnetic stirring rod into flask.Cover the mouth of the flask with cling wrap.Pierce cling wrap, making a small hole which will prevent pressure build-up.Turn on magnetic stirrer, ensuring that no clumps of agar form.Transfer flask to a water bath, preventing solidification.1 Introduction A technical report is a formal report designed to convey technical information in a clear and easily accessible format.
It is divided into sections which allow different readers to access different levels of information.
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This guide explains the commonly accepted format for a technical report; explains the purposes of the individual sections; and gives hints on how to go about drafting and refining a report in order to produce an accurate, professional document.2 Structure Section Title page Must include the title of the report.Reports for assessment, where the word length has been specified, will often also require the summary word count and the main text word count Summary Contents Introduction States the objectives of the report and comments on the way the topic of the report is to be treated .Reports for assessment, where the word length has been specified, will often also require the summary word count and the main text word count Summary Contents Introduction States the objectives of the report and comments on the way the topic of the report is to be treated.
Must not be a copy of the introduction in a lab handout.
The sections which make up the body of the report Divided into numbered and headed sections Hand written or dot-matrix printed reports are not acceptable. Margins, All four margins must be at least 2.54 cm. Page numbers, Do not number the title, summary or contents pages. Number all other pages consecutively starting at 1. Binding, A single staple in the top left corner or 3 staples spaced down the left hand margin .The sections which make up the body of the report Divided into numbered and headed sections.These sections separate the different main ideas in a logical order Conclusions References Details of published sources of material referred to or quoted in the text (including any lecture notes and URL addresses of any websites used.Bibliography Other published sources of material, including websites, not referred to in the text but useful for background or further reading.Acknowledgements Appendices (if appropriate) Any further material which is essential for full understanding of your report (e freehostingprofits.com/laboratory-report/best-websites-to-purchase-an-ecology-laboratory-report-harvard-college-senior-10-days-privacy.Acknowledgements Appendices (if appropriate) Any further material which is essential for full understanding of your report (e.large scale diagrams, computer code, raw data, specifications) but not required by a casual reader 3 Presentation Script The report must be printed single sided on white A4 paper.Hand written or dot-matrix printed reports are not acceptable.Margins Page numbers Do not number the title, summary or contents pages.Number all other pages consecutively starting at 1 Binding A single staple in the top left corner or 3 staples spaced down the left hand margin.year 3 project report) binders may be used.4 Planning the report There are some excellent textbooks contain advice about the writing process and how to begin (see Section 16).Here is a checklist of the main stages; Collect your information.Sources include laboratory handouts and lecture notes, the University Library, the reference books and journals in the Department office.
Keep an accurate record of all the published references which you intend to use in your report, by noting down the following information; Journal article: edition, if appropriate year of publication N.the listing of recommended textbooks in section 2 contains all this information in the correct format.Write down topics and ideas from your researched material in random order.
Keep note of topics that do not fit into groups in case they come in useful later.Put the groups into a logical sequence which covers the topic of your report.Using your logical sequence of grouped ideas, write out a rough outline of the report with headings and subheadings.
the listing of recommended textbooks in Section 16 contains all this information in the correct format.5 Writing the first draft Who is going to read the report? For coursework assignments, the readers might be fellow students and/or faculty markers.In professional contexts, the readers might be managers, clients, project team members.
The answer will affect the content and technical level, and is a major consideration in the level of detail required in the introduction.Begin writing with the main text, not the introduction.Follow your outline in terms of headings and subheadings.Let the ideas flow; do not worry at this stage about style, spelling or word processing.If you get stuck, go back to your outline plan and make more detailed preparatory notes to get the writing flowing again.
Make rough sketches of diagrams or graphs.Keep a numbered list of references as they are included in your writing and put any quoted material inside quotation marks (see Section 11).Write the Conclusion next, followed by the Introduction.6 Revising the first draft This is the stage at which your report will start to take shape as a professional, technical document.
In revising what you have drafted you must bear in mind the following, important principle; the essence of a successful technical report lies in how accurately and concisely it conveys the intended information to the intended readership.During year 1, term 1 you will be learning how to write formal English for technical communication.This includes examples of the most common pitfalls in the use of English and how to avoid them.Use what you learn and the recommended books to guide you.
Most importantly, when you read through what you have written, you must ask yourself these questions; Does that sentence/paragraph/section say what I want and mean it to say? If not, write it in a different way.
Are there any words/sentences/paragraphs which could be removed without affecting the information which I am trying to convey? If so, remove them.7 Diagrams, graphs, tables and mathematics It is often the case that technical information is most concisely and clearly conveyed by means other than words.Imagine how you would describe an electrical circuit layout using words rather than a circuit diagram.Here are some simple guidelines; Diagrams Keep them simple.Put small diagrams after the text reference and as close as possible to it.Think about where to place large diagrams.Graphs Tables Is a table the best way to present your information? Consider graphs, bar charts or pie charts.Dependent tables (small) can be placed within the text, even as part of a sentence.Independent tables (larger) are separated from the text with table numbers and captions.
Position them as close as possible to the text reference.
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Complicated tables should go in an appendix.Mathematics Only use mathematics where it is the most efficient way to convey the information.Longer mathematical arguments, if they are really necessary, should go into an appendix How To Write A Personal Statement For Mechanical Engineering Best nbsp.Longer mathematical arguments, if they are really necessary, should go into an appendix.
You will be provided with lecture handouts on the correct layout for mathematics.
8 The report layout The appearance of a report is no less important than its content Where to get engineering report plagiarism-free 106 pages / 29150 words 2 days Custom writing CSE.8 The report layout The appearance of a report is no less important than its content.An attractive, clearly organised report stands a better chance of being read Where to get engineering report plagiarism-free 106 pages / 29150 words 2 days Custom writing CSE.An attractive, clearly organised report stands a better chance of being read.Use a standard, 12pt, font, such as Times New Roman, for the main text freehostingprofits.com/thesis/where-to-purchase-a-college-intellectual-property-thesis-one-hour-undergrad-double-spaced.Use a standard, 12pt, font, such as Times New Roman, for the main text.Use different font sizes, bold, italic and underline where appropriate but not to excess.Too many changes of type style can look very fussy.
9 Headings Use heading and sub-headings to break up the text and to guide the reader.They should be based on the logical sequence which you identified at the planning stage but with enough sub-headings to break up the material into manageable chunks.The use of numbering and type size and style can clarify the structure as follows; 3 Methods of harnessing wave energy 3.1 Shore-based systems 10 References to diagrams, graphs, tables and equations In the main text you must always refer to any diagram, graph or table which you use.Label diagrams and graphs as follows; Figure 1.
In this example, the second diagram in section 1 would be referred to by " figure 1." Label tables in a similar fashion; Table 3.1 Performance specifications of a range of commercially available GaAsFET devices In this example, the first table in section 3 might be referred to by " reference to the performance specifications provided in Table 3.
6) In this example, the sixth equation in section 3 might be referred to by " figure in decibels as given by eqn (3." 11 Originality and plagiarism Whenever you make use of other people's facts or ideas, you must indicate this in the text with a number which refers to an item in the list of references.
Any phrases, sentences or paragraphs which are copied unaltered must be enclosed in quotation marks and referenced by a number.Material which is not reproduced unaltered should not be in quotation marks but must still be referenced.It is not sufficient to list the sources of information at the end of the report; you must indicate the sources of information individually within the report using the reference numbering system.Information that is not referenced is assumed to be either common knowledge or your own work or ideas; if it is not, then it is assumed to be plagiarised i.you have knowingly copied someone else's words, facts or ideas without reference, passing them off as your own.If the person copied from is a fellow student, then this offence is known as collusion and is equally serious.Examination boards can, and do, impose penalties for these offences ranging from loss of marks to disqualification from the award of a degree This warning applies equally to information obtained from the Internet.It is very easy for markers to identify words and images that have been copied directly from web sites.
If you do this without acknowledging the source of your information and putting the words in quotation marks then your report will be sent to the Investigating Officer and you may be called before a disciplinary panel.12 Finalising the report and proofreading Your report should now be nearly complete with an introduction, main text in sections, conclusions, properly formatted references and bibliography and any appendices.Now you must add the page numbers, contents and title pages and write the summary.13 The Summary The summary, with the title, should indicate the scope of the report and give the main results and conclusions.
It must be intelligible without the rest of the report.
Many people may read, and refer to, a report summary but only a few may read the full report, as often happens in a professional organisation.Purpose - a short version of the report and a guide to the report.Length - short, typically not more than 100-300 words Content - provide information, not just a description of the report.14 Proofreading This refers to the checking of every aspect of a piece of written work from the content to the layout and is an absolutely necessary part of the writing process.You should acquire the habit of never sending or submitting any piece of written work, from email to course work, without at least one and preferably several processes of proofreading.
In addition, it is not possible for you, as the author of a long piece of writing, to proofread accurately yourself; you are too familiar with what you have written and will not spot all the mistakes.When you have finished your report, and before you staple it, you must check it very carefully yourself.You should then give it to someone else, e.one of your fellow students, to read carefully and check for any errors in content, style, structure and layout.
You should record the name of this person in your acknowledgements.15 Word processing / desktop publishing Advantages Disadvantages Word processing and desktop publishing packages offer great scope for endless revision of a document.This includes words, word order, style and layout.Word processing and desktop publishing packages never make up for poor or inaccurate content They allow for the incremental production of a long document in portions which are stored and combined later They can waste a lot of time by slowing down writing and distracting the writer with the mechanics of text and graphics manipulation.They can be used to make a document look stylish and professional.
Excessive use of 'cut and paste' leads to tedious repetition and sloppy writing.They make the process of proofreading and revision extremely straightforward If the first draft is word processed, it can look so stylish that the writer is fooled into thinking that it does not need proofreading and revision! Two useful tips; Do not try to get graphics finalised until the text content is complete.